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By A. Reutlinger

This primary complete size remedy of interventionist theories of causation within the social sciences, the organic sciences and different higher-level sciences the provides unique counter arguments to fresh traits within the debate and serves as beneficial advent to the topic.

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Extra info for A Theory of Causation in the Social and Biological Sciences

Sample text

According to theories of type-level causation, the relata of causal relations are event-types represented by statements expressing the fact that a possible value is assigned to a variable. This deviates from many received philosophical views: many philosophers, such as David Lewis, focus on singular causation and take the causal relata to be events described by event statements such as ‘event e occurs’. 2 For instance, the token-event that the actual temperature in my office is 30ºC today 28 The Interventionist Theory of Causation at noon is represented by the statement ‘the event-type represented by T = 30º is actually instantiated in my office today at noon’.

Various kinds of causation (such as type-level, actual, deterministic, probabilistic, and degrees of causal influence) have been presented, and features of causation (such as the modal character of causation, its asymmetry and time-asymmetry, a distinction in kind between causes and mere correlations, and the qualification of causal statements by clauses such as ‘while other factors are held constant’ and ‘ceteris paribus’). Social scientists explicitly (and, even more often, implicitly) accept the presented kinds of causation, and they typically assign features to causation.

Woodward’s heuristic says that to claim there is a possible intervention can be illustrated and made plausible by the claim that there is, in principle, a reliable randomized controlled experiment that confirms Silencin causes a decrease in tinnitus problems. g. one that lets the GNP per capita increase) that alters the rate of infant mortality. According to Woodward, the claim that there is a possible intervention on the GNP can be illustrated and made plausible by the claim that there is, in principle – though maybe not feasible for politicians – a reliable randomized controlled experiment that confirms that low GNP causes a high rate of infant mortality.

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