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By Borovikov V. A.

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BER) and to reduce the level of interference to neighbouring cells, which reuse the same frequencies. Only in IS-95 CDMA systems was power control implemented to equalise fading in the uplink. CDMA-based systems benefit particularly from power control as their frequency reuse factor is one. Moreover, all users transmit in the same band and all of them appear as interference to each other. Therefore, the higher the transmitting power, the greater the interference becomes. Through the power control process, co-channel interference can be reduced.

1 Why fading? Why do received signals fade? Typically, radio communication channels are characterised by multi-path signal arrival. 3). As all of the reflected signals travel through different paths, they have different propagation delay times, amplitudes, and phases. At each instant and at each physical point, these signals may combine constructively or destructively. 3. Each ray of a received signal is a vector with a certain phase and amplitude. If received signals are drawn for an area, the sum of the vectors will appear as peaks and troughs – peaks representing the places where multi-path signals combine constructively and troughs indicating where they combine destructively.

Voice communications require equivalent resources for UL and DL. For data communications, however, traffic amounts are not necessarily equivalent. That the traffic volumes for DL and UL vary in an unexpected fashion is a phenomenon we will discuss below. What resources ratio will be required for each link in the future broadband wireless systems remains uncertain. A major advantage of TDD over FDD is its flexibility of resource allocation. 9. In fact, capacity allocation can be varied as often as desired, and even independently at the cell level.

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