By C. Shelby
Addiction argues that habit will be understood no longer as a affliction yet as a phenomenon that needs to be understood on many degrees right away. utilizing a fancy dynamic platforms procedure and philosophical method, Shelby explains dependancy as an irreducible neurobiological, mental, developmental, environmental, and sociological phenomenon.
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Additional resources for Addiction: A Philosophical Perspective
Let us return, then, to the DSM-IV-TR’s descriptions of substance abuse and dependence disorders. Four major classes of drugs, as we have said, are outlined in the volume: psychostimulants, opiates, alcohol, and nicotine. These drugs, and the four major brain systems on which they are thought to operate in addiction, including the opioid attachmentreward system, the dopamine-based incentive-motivation apparatus, the self-regulation areas of the prefrontal cortex, and the stress-response mechanism, provide the foundation for biological psychology’s explanations of what addiction is, how it occurs, and why addicts remain vulnerable to relapse even after lengthy abstinence.
50 And not only do Some Philosophical Questions (and a New Theory) 31 individual organisms reverse entropy by maintaining themselves but they also reproduce themselves by replicating both the patterns that constitute them and the materials subserving those patterns. What is more, organisms decrease entropy globally through evolution by adapting to their environment, coordinating with the other elements in their ecosystems. Increasing complexity and increasing order is the natural dynamic of these systems, the pervasive exception to the second law of thermodynamics.
Moreover, molecular biology explains certain phenomena that occur in the brain with repeated exposure to addictive drugs. These findings seem to make sense of the compulsive element that is associated with many cases of addiction, at the very least suggesting that something other than simple choice is involved. Nevertheless, much care must be taken to situate the cart relative to the horse in this research, and to disentangle the many and diverse threads of addiction research, if we are to evaluate the contention that addiction is a disease.