By L. Kirkup, R. B. Frenkel
Size shapes clinical theories, characterises advancements in production tactics and promotes effective trade. In live performance with size is uncertainty, and scholars in technological know-how and engineering have to determine and quantify uncertainties within the measurements they make. This booklet introduces size and uncertainty to moment and 3rd yr scholars of technology and engineering. Its process depends on the the world over acknowledged and urged directions for calculating and expressing uncertainty (known through the acronym GUM). The facts underpinning the tools are thought of and labored examples and routines are unfold in the course of the textual content. unique case stories in keeping with general undergraduate experiments are integrated to enhance the foundations defined within the ebook. This consultant is usually invaluable to execs in who're anticipated to grasp the modern equipment during this more and more very important region. extra on-line assets can be found to aid the publication at www.cambridge.org/9780521605793.
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Additional info for An introduction to uncertainty in measurement using the GUM
It should be noted that the speed of light in a vacuum, c, has a deﬁned quantity, 299 792 458 m · s−1 , with zero uncertainty. Other units, created by combining SI base units, are referred to as derived units. As an example, the average speed, v, of a body is related to the distance, d, travelled by a body in a time, t, through the equation v= d . 1) by its unit gives unit of speed = m , which may also be written as either m/s or m · s−1 . s The unit of speed does not have a special name, but there are derived units, such as those of force and energy, that do.
Both methods of revealing systematic errors – speciﬁc information and changes to the experimental set-up – require a good grasp of the science underlying the measurement. Since any attempt at accurate measurement is potentially or actually beset by systematic errors from many sources – awareness of this is part of the mental atmosphere of metrology – it is useful to have some familiarity with scientiﬁc areas apart from the area of immediate relevance to the measurement.
1 Measurement and error 39 to be very nearly zero if there is a very large number of measurements. Making many measurements is in fact generally preferable to making only a few – time and resources permitting. 1; the greater the number of measurements, the more precisely we might expect to establish the value of the temperature coefﬁcient. However, it is often pointless to take very many measurements to ascertain the true value of the measurand. The reason is the probable existence of the other ﬂavour of error: a systematic error.